Italia Timeline

1184 BCE
The fall of Troy. Aeneas fled to Central Italia and married Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus. King Numitor, who ruled Alba Longa, was a descendant of Aeneas.

21 April 753 BCE
Romulus founded the city of Roma on the Palatine Hill. “Romulus, accordingly, built Roma Quadrata, and wished to have a city on that site; but Remus laid out a strong precinct on the Aventine hill…Agreeing to settle their quarrel by the flight of birds of omen,​ and taking their seats on the ground apart from one another, six vultures, they say, were seen by Remus, and twice that number by Romulus.” Read more of Plutarch’s The Life of Romulus

509 BCE
The Roman Republic was founded, as Lucius Junius Brutus ousts King Tarquin the Proud. “The Roman Republic was founded in 509 B.C.E. after the last Etruscan king that ruled Rome was overthrown. Rome’s next government served as a representative democracy in the form of a republic.” National Geographic

458 BCE
Cincinnatus saved the Roman Republic.

15 March 44 BCE
Assassination of Julius Caesar

31 BCE
Augustus became the first emperor of Roma. This date marks the beginning of the Pax Romana. Pax Romana is a Latin term that translates to “Roman Peace.” It refers to a period of relative peace and stability in the Roman Empire. During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire was at the height of its power and influence, and there were relatively few large-scale wars or uprisings within its borders. The Pax Romana was characterized by strong and centralized government, efficient infrastructure, and widespread cultural and economic exchange throughout the empire.

30 or 33 CE
Crucifixion of Jesus Christ as ordered by Pontus Pilate, Roman Governor of Judaea.

“24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it. 25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. 26 Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.” Matthew 27:24-26

64 or 68 CE
Death of Peter in Roma. Jesus had chosen Peter as his representative on Earth, and thus Peter is considered the first Pope. Catholics consider Peter to have assumed the Papacy at the death of Christ and held the position for 30 years until his death.

“18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. 19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” Matthew 16:18-19

79 CE
Eruption of Mount Vesuvius and the destruction of Pompeii

Hadrian expelled the Jews from Judea

17 March 180
Marcus Aurelius died and the Pax Romana ends

February 313
Emperor Constantine proclaimed the Edict of Milan. The edict established religious toleration in the Roman Empire, which was of great importance of Christianity. This enabled Christians to build churches and worship openly.

24 August 410
Alaric and his Visigoth army sacked Roma. The Ancient Roman empire never recovered. This event is considered to perceptate the end of the Roman Empire in terms of military and political strength.

15 March 421
The city of Venezia was founded at exactly noon.

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire formally occurred as Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus.

25 December 800
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor in St. Peter’s.

Fibonacci introduced arabic numerals to Europe in his book Liber Abaci (Book of Calculations).

Dante finished the Divine Comedy

Ghiberti is selected for the commission of the Baptistery doors of Firenze at the expense of Brunelleschi

Brunelleschi completed the dome of the cathedral of Firenze, thanks in large part ot the support of Cosimo de Medici

26 April 1478
The Pazzi family attempt to murder Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici

Botticelli painted the Birth of Venus

Michelangelo created the David

Leonardo painted the Mona Lisa

Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo de Medici, becomes Pope Leo X. Pope Leo X grants indulgences to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica. This leads to Mather Luther’s 95 Theses and the Protestant Reformation.

Michelangelo finished painting the Sistine Chapel frescoes.

The Inquisition condemned Galileo’s proclamations on Heliocentrism.

Bernini completes the Baldacchino over the tomb of Saint Peter. The masterpiece is the pinnacle of the Baroque.

Death of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Great artistic innovations shift to France.

The Medici dynasty ends with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici. Any living Medicis have no direct link to the historic family.

John William Bailly 30 June 2022

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