España: Timeline

This timeline of the history of España is adapted from the Official website of the president of the Government of Spain and the Council of Ministers. It is posted here for educational purposes only. Prof Bailly changed the names from their English versions to the original Spanish (ex: Charles III to Carlos III) and added a few dates relevant to España: Ida y Vuelta

https://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/lang/en/espana/historyandculture/history/Paginas/index.aspx

Prehistory

  • 1,500,000 B. C. First human findings on the Iberian Peninsula
  • 40,000-15,000 B. C. Altamira cave paintings

Spain before the Romans

  • 1,200-800 B. C. Indo-Europeans, Phoenicians and Greeks invade the Iberian Peninsula
  • 800-500 B. C. Tartessus

Roman Hispania (218 B. C.-409 A.D.)

The Visigothic Kingdom (472-710)

Moorish Spain (710-1492)

  • 756-929 Umayyad emirate
  • 929-1031 Caliphate
  • 1031-1090 Taifa kingdoms
  • 1090-1146 Almoravid invasion
  • 1146-1224 Almohad invasion
  • 1224-1232 Marinid invasion
  • 1232-1492 Nasrid kingdom of Granada

Christian Spain (710-1492)

  • 803 Kingdom of Navarre
  • 1137 Crown of Aragón
  • 1230 Kingdom of Castile and Leon
  • 1479 Union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragón with the Catholic Monarchs
  • 1492 Conquest of Granada, Columbus’ discovery of America and the publication of the first Spanish grammar text (Gramática Castellana)
  • 1512 Incorporation of Navarre
  • 1535-1545 Viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru

House of Habsburg (1516-1700)

  • 1516-1556 Carlos I
  • 1526 Treaty of Madrid
  • 1556 Felipe II
  • 1571 Battle of Lepanto
  • 1598-1621 Felipe III
  • 1605 Don Quixote
  • 1621-1665 Felipe IV
  • 1640 Secession of Portugal
  • 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees
  • 1665-1700 Carlos II

House of Bourbon (1700-1808)

  • 1700-1746 Felipe V
  • 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
  • 1746-1759 Ferdinand VI
  • 1759-1788 Carlos III
  • 1760-1790 Enlightenment and reform
  • 1788-1808 Carlos IV
  • 1805 Battle of Trafalgar
  • 1807 Treaty of Fontainebleau

Dissolution of the Old Regime and the Peninsular War (1808- 1814)

  • 1808 Abdication of Carlos IV and Ferdinand VII in Bayonne. Entry of Joseph Bonaparte I in Madrid.
  • 1810-1812 The Cortes and Constitution of Cádiz

Liberal reaction and Revolution (1814-1833)

  • 1814 Arrival of Ferdinand VII in Madrid
  • 1814-1820 First Absolutist Restoration
  • 1820-1823 The Uprising and Liberal Triennium
  • 1823-1833 Second Absolutist Restoration

Regency periods (1833-1843)

  • 1833-1841 Death of Ferdinand VIl and Regency of Maria Christina Carlist War
  • 1834 Royal Statute
  • 1837 Liberal Constitution
  • 1841-1843 Regency of Espartero

Reign of Isabella II (1843-1868)

  • 1843-1854 Moderate Decade
  • 1845 Constitution
  • 1854-1856 Liberal Biennium
  • 1856 “Non nata” constitution
  • 1856-1868 Moderate Predominance

Revolutionary Six Years (1868- 1874)

  • 1869 Constitution of 1869
  • 1869-1871 Regency of General Serrano
  • 1871-1873 Reign of Amadeus of Savoy
  • 1873-1874 First Spanish Republic
  • 1874 Coup staged by Martínez Campos on behalf of Alfonso XII.

Restoration (1875-1923)

  • 1875 Entry of Alfonso XII in Madrid
  • 1876 Constitution
  • 1881 Liberal government
  • 1885 Death of Alfonso XII Regency of Maria Christina
  • 1890 Universal suffrage
  • 1898 Spanish-American War and Treaty of Paris
  • 1902-1931 Reign of Alfonso XIII

Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the fall of the Monarchy (1923-1931)

  • 1931 Municipal elections (14 April) and Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic

Second Republic and Spanish Civil War (1931-1939)

  • 1931 Republican Constitution
  • 1933 Electoral victory of CEDA
  • 1936 Electoral victory of the Popular Front (February) and military coup (July)
  • Civil War (1936-1939)

General Franco’s regime (1939-1975)

  • 1959 Stabilization Plan
  • 1969 Appointment of Prince Juan Carlos as successor

Democratic transition

  • 1975 Death of Franco Proclamation of King Juan Carlos I
  • 1976 Common Law on Political Reform (November) and Referendum (December)
  • 1977 General elections (15 June) Relative majority for the UCD President Adolfo Suárez (4 July) Spain requests membership in the EEC (28 July)
  • 1978 Constitutional referendum (6 December) Constitution sanctioned by H.M. the King on 27 December in Parliament Enters into force on 28 December

Constitutional Monarchy

  • 1979 General elections (1 March).
  • 1979 Congress approves Spain’s accession to NATO (29 October)
  • 1982 General elections. Absolute majority for the PSOE (28 October). New government with Felipe González as president (3 December)
  • 1985 Signature of Spain’s treaty of adhesion to the EEC (12 June)
  • 1986 Spain and Portugal become full EEC members (1 January). Prince Felipe swears allegiance to the Constitution in Parliament (30 January). Positive results in the referendum on Spain remaining in NATO (12 March). General elections. New absolute majority for the PSOE (22 June)
  • 1989 Spanish presidency of the EC (first half). European elections (15 June). General elections. Victory for the PSOE (29 October). Felipe González takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (5 December)
  • 1993 General elections (6 June). Relative majority for the PSOE. Felipe González takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (9 July)
  • 1995 Spanish presidency of the European Union (second half). The European Council of Madrid approves the name of the future European currency: the euro (15-16 December)
  • 1996 General elections (relative majority for the PP). José María Aznar is sworn in as president before Parliament (3 May)
  • 2000 General elections (victory with an absolute majority for the PP). José María Aznar takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (25 April)
  • 2002 Spanish presidency of the European Union (first half)
  • 2004 General elections (victory for the PSOE with a relative majority). José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (17 April). European elections (13 June)
  • 2005 European Constitution Referendum (20 February)
  • 2008 General elections (victory for the PSOE with a relative majority). José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (8 April)
  • 2010 Spanish presidency of the European Union (first half)
  • 2011 General elections (20 November). Victory for the PP with an absolute majority. Mariano Rajoy takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (20 December)

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

Ham, Anthony; Quintero, Josephine. Lonely Planet Madrid (Travel Guide). Lonely Planet Global Limited, 2021.

Phillips, Jr, William D.; Rahn Phillips, Carla. A Concise History of Spain (Cambridge Concise Histories). Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Shields, Graham. Madrid (World Bibliographical Series). ABC-CLIO, 1996.

Steves, Rick. Rick Steves Spain (Travel Guide). Avalon Travel, 2016.

EDITOR AND LAST UPDATE
John William Bailly 08 June 2022
COPYRIGHT © ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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