España: Historic Humans


Isabella I de Castilla (1451-1504) & Ferdinand II de Aragon (1479-1516) – Two of the most significant monarchs in the history of the world. In 1492, they oversaw the Reconquista from Muslims of España in taking Granada and initiation of the conquest of the Americas.

Felipe II (1556-1598) – Felipe II, of the House of Habsburg, established Madrid as the capital of España in 1561. The Inca empire and the Philippines were conquered during his reign, with the second named in his honor.

Felipe V – Felipe V, Grandson of Louis XIV of France, was born in Versailles and the first Spanish king of the House of Bourbon. When he was crowned King of Spain, he did not speak Spanish.

Carlos III – The king mayor. Carlos III is the first king to seriously invest in the infrastructure of Madrid. Carlos III had spent his youth in Napoli.

Joseph I –

Franco –

Juan Carlos I – When Franco died, Juan Carlos I pushed to have a parliamentary monarchy

Felipe VI – Current monarch of España.


Piero della Francesca (1398-1484): The Annunciation from the Early Renaissance in the Prado. Not only do the landscape and architecture display a familiarity with this world, but Mary’s reaction to the message from the angel is quite human as well.

Rogier van der Weyden (1399-1464)

Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516): The Garden of Earthly Delights in the Prado

Raphael (1483-1520)

Tiziano (1488-1576)

Caravaggio (1571-1610)

El Greco (1541-1614): The Burial of Count Orgaz

Diego Velazquez (1599-1660): Las Meninas

Francisco Goya (1746-1828): The Black Paintings

Antoní Gaudi (1852-1926)

Santiago Rusiñol (1861-1931)

Ramon Casas (1866-1932)

Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): Guernica

Federico García Lorca (1898-1936): Monument to him on Plaza Santa Ana

Salvador Dali (1904-1989): The Great Masturbator


Ham, Anthony; Quintero, Josephine. Lonely Planet Madrid (Travel Guide). Lonely Planet Global Limited, 2021.

Phillips, Jr, William D.; Rahn Phillips, Carla. A Concise History of Spain (Cambridge Concise Histories). Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Shields, Graham. Madrid (World Bibliographical Series). ABC-CLIO, 1996.

Steves, Rick. Rick Steves Spain (Travel Guide). Avalon Travel, 2016.

John William Bailly 08 June 2022

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