United States Department of the Interior
National Park Service
National Register of Historic Places
Prepared by Sara Eaton, Historic Preservation Officer: Carl Shiver, Historic Preservationist, Florida Bureau of Historic Preservation
The Lummus Park Historic District is a residential area located in the City of Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida. Just west of downtown Miami, this historic district is located in a three-block area immediately east of the Miami River. The Lummus Park Historic District is a distinguishable entity that represents historic and architectural resources constructed in Miami before and during the land boom era of the 1920s. Many of the buildings date from the first two decades of the twentieth century. The buildings in the district exhibit the Frame Vernacular, Masonry Vernacular, Art Deco, and Mediterranean Revival architectural styles. The building ground plans and rooflines vary, and the materials range from weatherboard siding to stucco. Of the twentythree resources located in the historic district, nineteen are contributing and four are non-contributing. The Lummus Park’ recreational area, created in 1909, is a contributing site in the historic district. Many original streetscape and landscaping features remain intact within the district, including oolitic limestone and concrete walls separating properties and mature trees found in the neighborhood.
The City of Miami known as the “Magic City” is located in Southeast Florida, in Miami-Dade County on the Miami River, between the Florida Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. Since its incorporation in 1896, the City has grown tremendously, transforming into one of the world’s renowned centers where people can work, live and play while enjoying a high quality of life. The City of Miami, known for its diverse culture and ethnicities, is the largest municipality in Miami-Dade County. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 362,470. By the year 2010 the population in the City is projected to rise to 390,191. Miami which is known as the Gateway to Latin America, attracts a tremendous number of foreign bom people, resulting in a large Latin American population that includes Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians, Venezuelans, Puerto Ricans, Argentineans, Ecuadorians, Brazilians, Dominicans, Haitians and Mexicans. According to the 2000 U.S. census, the City has a 60 percent Hispanic population, a 22.3 percent African-American population, and an 11.9 percent White/other population.
The Lummus Park Historic District is a neighborhood located slightly west of downtown Miami. Immediately to the west of the historic district is the Miami River. Beyond Lummus Park to the south are several large, modem apartment buildings. Modem high-rise apartment buildings are also present north of the historic district on the north side of NW 4th Street. To the east of the historic district, beyond NW 3rd Avenue, is Interstate 95 (1-95). The vacant and under-utilized public waterfront area adjacent to Lummus Park is proposed for redevelopment for marine service and a local vegetable and seafood market serving area residents. A waterfront cafe district is also proposed to restore activity to the area and expand job opportunities.
The Lummus Park Historic District contains historic buildings situated in a three-block area, much of which borders on Lummus Park, established in 1909. The park is included within the district boundaries and was the catalyst for the development of the surrounding area into a residential neighborhood. The earliest building in the district. Fort Dallas, was constructed c. 1848 at another site and was reconstructed in Lummus Park in 1925. The remainder of the contributing buildings, located outside the park, was constructed between 1914 and 1925. Three non-contributing buildings date between 1972 and 2001. There are also two noncontributing buildings within Lummus Park. These are the William Wagner House, constructed in 1855 at another location, which underwent a number of alterations when it was moved to the park in 1979. The other noncontributing building in the park is the contemporary Recreation Hall. The Lummus Park Historic District is anchored on the south by Lummus Park, on the southwest comer by the impressive Scottish Rite Temple, and on the northwest comer by the Trinity C.M.E. Church.
The Lummus Park Historic District (Photos 1-2) is made up of single-family and multi-unit residential buildings. In addition, there are a few examples of rear outbuildings. The buildings within the district are executed in a variety of architectural styles and contain an array of plan configurations. The construction materials are varied, as are the rooflines and siting of the buildings within the property lines (Photo 3). The streetscapes comprising the historic district retain a great deal of the visual character that provides the area with a special sense of place and time. There are oolitic and concrete walls surrounding many of the properties, which are shaded by mature palm and oak trees. The existing landscaping, coupled with the distinctive street elevations of many buildings, recalls the built environment of the neighborhood during the city’s pre-land boom era prior to 1926. Due to the rapid growth during the land boom era and the post-World War II era, several other examples of neighborhoods with similar character have been lost.
Vernacular buildings demonstrate a tradition of building passed through generations of master craftsman and apprentice relationships. This style of building uses indigenous materials to produce architecture appropriate for the local climate. Architectural elements of Florida Frame Vernacular buildings include wide porches and broad overhangs to provide shade, and dormers and open foundations to promote ventilation. In this district, most of the Frame Vernacular buildings are two stories high and exhibit Craftsman influences. Of the contributing resources, seven are of the Frame Vernacular style.
A good example of the Frame Vernacular style in the Lummus Park Historic District is the E. S. Lyne House located at 444 NW 4th Street. This house, built circa 1918, is a two-story building that rests on a pier foundation. In the Craftsman tradition, the building has a cross-gabled roof with exposed rafter tails under its eaves. The front porch, which runs across the entire front of the building, has a gabled roof held up by wood posts that rest on concrete bases. The T. P. Way House, at 450 N.W. 4th Street and next door to the E. S. Lyne House, is another example of Frame Vernacular architecture. Built circa 1914, this residence is two stories high and rests on a brick pier foundation. The hipped roof has exposed jigsaw-cut rafter tails. Other Frame Vernacular buildings in this district include the Lula H. Hattersley House at 401 NW 3rd Street, the Albury House at 413 NW 3rd Street, 411 NW 3rd Street, the Oaks Hotel and Apartments at 421 NW 3rd Street, and the Frank J. Pepper House at 328 NW 4th Avenue.
Masonry Vernacular buildings, like other examples of vernacular architecture, are based on a traditional approach to building that considers availability of materials, economic construction methods, and climatic factors. In this district, these simple buildings are generally no more than two stories high. Often made of inexpensive concrete block, this vernacular style also shows a Craftsman influence.
Seven of the contributing resources in the Lummus Park Historic District are Masonry Vernacular. The G. P. Michner House, 436 NW 4th Street, is a good example of this style. The gabled roof of the house is repeated over the fi-ont porch, which features square columns. An interesting element of this house is its small tower with a pyramidal roof, located on the southeast comer of the building. The Temple Court Apartments, at 431-439 NW 3rd Street, is another example of the Masonry Vernacular style. This three-story masonry building (west wing) has a stucco finish. Its roof is flat and surrounded by a parapet wall, except at the comer towers, where it is hipped. Other Masonry Vernacular buildings in this district include the Frank Gallat House at 453 NW 3rd Street, the W. F. Koegler House at 371 NW 3rd Street, 416 NW 5th Avenue, and the Trinity C.M.E. Church at 511 NW 4th Street.
The Mediterranean Revival style was extremely popular in Florida during the 1920s land boom. It is often associated with the estates of the wealthy, but elements of those estates were often copied and repeated in more modest buildings. This style combines aspects found in various Mediterranean architectures and includes many decorative elements.
Three apartment buildings in this district represent the Mediterranean Revival style. The Wonderview Apartments building, 345 NW 3rd Street, is a three-story high masonry building with a stucco finish. The Mission tiles covering the roof, the paired arches on the porch, and the comer quoins reflect the architectural styles of the Mediterranean. The Orlando Apartments, 458 NW 4th Street, is another three-story high masonry building clad in stucco. The prominent Mediterranean Revival feature of this building is the Spanish-tiled canopy over the two outer bays on the third floor. The Burr Apartments, 342 NW 4th Avenue, are housed in a two-story high masonry building with a textured stucco finish. The sloping parapet on the roof was originally covered in Spanish tiles.
Art Deco buildings represent a break from traditional styles. This style is characterized by stylized geometric details and vertical extensions above the roofline. The ornate Art Deco was a popular style for public buildings during the 1920s and 1930s. This was especially true in Miami, where upper-class vacationers brought their money to spend in extravagant hotels near the beach. The Scottish Rite Temple, 471 NW 3rd Street, is an excellent example of Art Deco architecture. This three-story high building, designed by Kiehnel and Elliot, features two-story high Doric columns, stylized sculptures, and a ziggurat-shaped roof This building is an important landmark in the City of Miami.
Beginning at Lummus Park and proceeding in a clockwise direction through NW 3rd Street, NW 4th Street, and NW 4th Avenue, the properties contributing to the character of the district are described as follows:
Lummus Park comprises a tract of land acquired by the City of Miami in 1909 for recreational purposes. It was named for John Newton Lummus, Sr., (1873-?), who in 1909 introduced the resolution for the city of Miami to develop the parcel of land as a public park. Lummus was one of the early real estate developers in Miami and Miami Beach and was elected the first mayor of the city of Miami Beach (1915-1918). The park encompasses an area of 5.9 acres and contains three major buildings. One building has been constructed since 1954 and serves to enhance the recreational needs of the park. The park is approximately rectangular in shape and lies between the 1-95 expressway and N.W. North ^ver Drive. The park contains varied vegetation with no apparent formal landscaping.
Fort Dallas (William English Plantation, Lummus Park)
Fort Dallas (Photo 4) was originally one of the buildings located on the plantation of William English, one of Dade County’s early pioneers. Its original site is now occupied by the Dupont Plaza Hotel in downtown Miami. The historic landmark was disassembled and reconstructed in Lummus Park in 1925. In reconstructing the building, using the original limestone blocks, the plan of the building was copied and the old windows and doorframes reused. The original building dated from 1836 and between 1838 and l855 was used by the U.S. Army as a trading post and a barracks. Fort Dallas is a one-story rectangular building constructed of native oolitic limestone. The masonry building is capped by a gable roof that is covered with composition shingles and features exposed rafters under the roof eaves. The main entrance to the building is loeated on the north elevation and contains a wood panel door recessed behind iron grilles. The gable ends of the building are decorated with wooden shingles and contain small louvered vents. Also located at each gable end are interior brick chimneys with the brick exposed below the shingles.
Wonderview Apartments, 345 NW 3rd Street
The Wonderview Apartments (presently known as the Lorusso Apartments) are constructed of masonry and rise to a height of three stories. This apartment building constitutes a fine example of the Mediterranean Revival style of architecture with construction beginning in 1925 (Photo 5). The three-story building is three bays wide and extends almost the entire length of the lot. An arcade with an entrance at the center bay characterizes the principal elevation of the building. The two side bays feature paired arches. There are recessed balconies on the second and third stories at the center bay. The exterior walls of the building are clad in textured stucco. The original fenestration consisted of double-hung, three-over-one sash windows set within wooden frames. The windows have been replaced with metal awning windows. A parapet roof, covered in Mission tiles, creates an articulated roofline for the building. There are scuppers along the parapet. The exterior is embellished with corner quoins on the second and third floor corners.
This masonry apartment building represents a fine example of Mediterranean Revival architecture in Miami-Dade County in the 1920s and 1930s. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, details, groundfloor arcade and cohesiveness within the neighborhood.
Koegler, W. F., House, 371 NW 3rd Street
This house is a two-story, masonry building with a projecting lower story (Photo 6). The house features a rectangular plan and was erected prior to 1922. The principal elevation is four bays wide and features architectural elements derived from Masonry Vernacular styling. One of the most distinguishing features of the building’s facade is the crenellated parapet, which wraps around the perimeter of the house at both the first and second stories. All the original windows have been replaced with jalousie-type windows set into aluminum frames. The exterior of the house is clad in smooth stucco and its exterior features a projecting comice delineated by a stylized leaf motif located just below the upper crenellated parapet. A one-story auxiliary building is located immediately north of the house.
Hattersley, Lula H., House, 401 NW 3rd Street (moved from its original location at 428 NW 4th Street)
Built circa 1914, this house (Photo 7) is Frame Vernacular in style. The building’s design reflects the pyramidal cottage house type. It is sited on the north side of NW 3rd Street. The rectangular, one-story building has a wood frame structural system that rests on painted concrete block piers. The exterior fabric consists of weatherboard siding, and the hipped roof is covered with composition shingles. A full-facade porch is located on the south elevation and wraps around on the west elevation. The hipped roof porch has turned post supports and features a railing with turned balusters. The building has wood frame, double-hung sash windows with one-over-one light configurations. Architectural detailing is limited to simple window surrounds, comer boards, and exposed rafter tails imder the eaves that are decoratively cut. An addition has been attached to the east side of the rear elevation. Some of the jigsaw-cut rafter tails have been replaced with plain, uncut boards.
This frame residence represents a fine example of Frame Vernacular architecture in Miami-Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, flared roof details, use of materials, adaptability to the area’s climate, cohesiveness within the neighborhood and straightforward functional character. The original owner was Lula H. Hattersley. The original lot was previously owned by the Model Land Company, a subsidiary of the Florida East Coast Railway. The Model Land Company, whose president was James E. Ingraham,^ was one of the many companies formed to promote and sell land the railroad had acquired. The house currently remains in good condition.
Albury House, 413 NW 3rd Street
This is a two-story frame building (Photo 8) constructed prior to 1914. There is a one-story masonry addition projecting from the building on the east side. The building is capped by a gable roof that incorporates a side gable dormer. There are exposed rafter ends, and the gable ends are decorated with wooden shingles. The principal elevation of the house is three bays wide and features a recessed balcony within the gable end at the level of an upper story. There are decorative sidelights around the main entrance. All the original fenestration has been replaced with single-hung, one-over-one sash windows set within aluminum frames. The general appearance of the house recalls the Frame Vernacular style of architecture. There is one small, historic accessory building located at the rear of the property.
411 NW 3rd Street
The building at 411 NW 3rd Street (Photo 9) is a two-story wood fi-ame building located to the rear of the Albury House. It may originally been a garage apartment, but is currently a residence on both floors. It has a gable-on-hip roof covered with composition shingles on the second story. The projecting first story has a shed roof The building is two bays wide with single-hung, one-over-one sash windows set within aluminum frames. There are also aluminum awning windows visible on the second story of the east elevation. The building has minimal features, which include gable vents and window surroimds on the first story.
Oaks Hotel and Apartments, 421 NW 3rd Street
This building was constructed prior to 1918 in the Frame Vernacular style of architecture (Photo 10). The rectangular plan building is supported by a frame structural system that is clad in asbestos shingles, although its exterior walls were originally covered with wood siding. The building sits on concrete block piers and is capped by a gable roof covered in composition roll roofing. A recessed porch at the first story characterizes the principal elevation of the building. The width of the elevation is divided into three bays by flat wood pilasters extending from the first through third floors. The gable roof has its gable end facing the street and adds a half story to the height of the building. A simple wooden balustrade around its perimeter delineates the first floor porch. A two-story auxiliary building is located at the rear of the property.
This frame apartment building represents a fine example of Frame Vernacular architecture in Miami-Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its size, adaptability to the area’s climate, cohesiveness within the neighborhood and straightforward, functional character.
Temple Court Apartments, 431^39 NW 3rd Street
The Temple Court Apartments were built in two phases between 1914 and 1918. The present configuration of the building is a “U” shape plan with a four-story elevation on the east wing and a three-story elevation on the west wing (Photo 11). The west wing is the older portion of the building and was previously known as the Gallat Court Apartments (Photo 12). The exterior of the apartment building is executed in the Masonry Vernacular style of architecture and contains many physical features of that style. The building’s structure is a masonry frame filled with concrete slabs to support the floors. The exterior walls of the building are clad in textured stucco and contain jalousie-type aluminum windows as replacements for the original fenestration. A low Mission-shaped parapet wall serves to conceal a flat roof. The most distinguishing features of the building are the comer towers capped by hipped roofs. The building’s wings are five bays wide, with a balcony delineated by a simple wooden balustrade at the outer two bays. The ground floor is comprised of full- facade porches marked by masonry arches, which support the balconies. At the top of the hyphen connecting the two wings the name of the building is inscribed on the parapet: “Temple Court.”
This masonry apartment building represents an unusual example of Masonry Vernacular architecture in Miami- Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its details, use of materials, size, massing, adaptability to the area’s climate and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. The original owner was Frank Gallat. The lot was previously owned by the Model Land Company.
Gallat, Frank, House, 453 NW 3rd Street
Known today as the Temple Court annex, this building (Photo 13) was the residence of Frank K. Gallat, early owner of the Temple Court Apartments (see above). The building is a two-and-one-half-story masonry building with a scored stucco exterior finish. The second story of the building presents projecting cross gables two bays wide The building was constructed in 1913 and is executed in the Masonry Vernacular style of architecture. The principal elevation of the building is characterized by a projecting wrapped porch on the first floor with a roof supported by stylized colonettes capped by Corinthian capitals. The entire building is capped by a hipped roof marked with hipped dormers toward the ends of the roof at the attic level. The roof is covered with composition shingles. Some of the original fenestration remains and consists of double-hung, one-over-one sash windows set within wooden frames.
Scottish Rite Temple, 471 NW 3rd Street
The three-story Scottish Rite Temple (Photo 14) is the most imposing building within the district in both scale and styling. Construction of the building began in 1922 based on the design by the prominent architectural firm of Kiehnel and Elliott. Richard Kiehnel and J .B. Elliot often tried to give buildings an aged look and were proponents of Mediterranean Revival style. Buildings they designed include the Seybold Building, Miami High School, Coral Gables Congregational Church, and El Jardin. The principal elevation is characterized by an entrance portico with four stylized Doric columns dividing the main facade into three bays. The columns extend to a height of two stories and are capped by a triangular pediment. The inscription on the entablature reads; “Scottish Rite.” The portico is ornamented with four large, two-headed eagles placed above each column axis. A gable-end roof is visible behind the eagle sculptures.
The building’s configuration presents a “T” shape plan with projecting lower wing to the northeast. The principal elevation of the wing is characterized by a colonnade delineated by similar stylized Doric columns and an articulated masonry entablature. The roof of the square block has a ziggurat with a massive single-headed eagle on each of the minor faces. A cupola caps the ziggurat. The walls of the building are clad in smooth stucco. A set of masonry steps lead from the sidewalk level to the entrance. The steps span the width of the main facade and emphasize the Grecian overtones present in the design. Most of the fenestration has been replaced by awning-type windows set into aluminum frames. A masonry dentil course wraps around the perimeter of the building at the height of the entablature. Among the most outstanding interior spaces are the two-story theater under the ziggurat roof and the clubroom located within the projecting wing. This building serves to anchor the southwest comer of the historic district and is in closer proximity to the Miami River than any other building within the district.
This temple represents an outstanding and unique example of Art Deco architecture in Miami-Dade County in the 1920s and 1930s. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic details with Art Deco abstractions, twoheaded eagles and a ziggurat roof, its size and monumental scale and its location, overlooking the river.
Trinity C.M.E Church, 511 NW 4th Street
The Trinity C.M.E. Church was constructed in 1922 as the Immanuel Lutheran Church by the architect John Sculthorpe (Photo 15). The Lutheran congregation occupied the building well into the 1950s. The masonry building is rectangular in plan and represents an example of the Masonry Vernacular style of architecture embellished with Neo-Gothic elements. The church has a comer entrance, which responds to its siting, at the northwest comer of the intersection of NW 4th Street and NW 5th Avenue. The building is four bays wide across its east elevation and six bays wide across the south elevation. The building’s exterior is characterized by paired lancet windows, masonry buttresses, and a comer tower. The building was heavily damaged during the hurricane of 1926, but was quickly repaired and its structure was strengthened. The church building is capped by a gable roof covered with composite shingles. Its exterior walls are clad in stucco and are pierced by the lancet windows decorated with iconography in stained glass. Although some of the original fenestration has been altered and covered with masonry block, the original design of the building is readily perceived. A small one-story, historic Masonry Vernacular building (416 NW 5th Avenue) and garage are located on the site immediately north of the church.
416 NW 5th Avenue
This one-story Masonry Vernacular building may be an accessory building to the Trinity C.M.E. Church at 511 NW 4th Street, although it has a different address. This building is rectangular in plan. Its main entrance is on the east facade, and is covered by a metal awning. The building has metal awning windows, usually in a configuration of four lights. The flat roof has a parapet, which is recessed slightly and is higher above the entrance and at the comers of the building. The decorative features include concrete sills and scuppers.
Orlando Apartments, 458 NW 4th Street
The Orlando is a three-story masonry apartment building supported by a reinforced concrete structural system (Photo 16). The building was constructed circa 1921 and is rectangular in its plan configuration. The exterior walls of the building are clad in textured stucco and are capped by a masonry parapet that conceals a flat roof behind. The principal elevation of the building is three bays wide and contains paired windows at the end bays. The tops of the outer bays are characterized by projecting canopies capped by a Spanish tile roof The building was renovated in the 1980s, during which time the original windows were removed and replaced with metal sash windows set within smaller frames.
This masonry apartment building represents a fine example of Mediterranean Revival architecture in Miami- Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, balcony details, use of materials, and size and cohesiveness within the neighborhood.
Way, T.P., House, 450 NW 4th Street Built circa 1914, this house (Photo 17) is Frame Vernacular in style. The rectangular two-story building has a wood frame structural system that rests on brick piers. Wood lattice is located between some of the piers. The exterior fabric consists of weatherboard siding, and the hipped roof is covered with composition shingles. A one-story, full- facade porch is located on the north and east elevations. The hipped roof porch has turned post supports and features a railing with turned balusters. An exterior concrete block chimney covered with stucco is evident on the south wall. The building features wood frame, double-hung sash windows with a one-over-one light configuration. Architectural details are limited to exposed jigsaw-cut rafter tails under the roof eaves, simple window surrounds, and comer boards.
This frame construction residence represents a typical example of Frame Vernacular architecture in Miami- Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its large porch, adaptability to the area’s climate and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. This building was recently rehabilitated as part of the Miami River Apartments Project.
Lyne, E.S., House, 444 NW 4th Street
Built circa 1918, this bungalow type residence (Photo 18) is Frame Vernacular in style. It is sited on the south side of NW 4th Street. The rectangular, two-story building has a wood frame structural system that rests on piers. Wood is located between some of the piers. The primary exterior fabric consists of weatherboard siding. The cross-gabled roof is covered with diamond-shaped composition shingles. A one-story, full- facadeporch is located on the north elevation. The open porch has paired wood post supports that sit on concrete bases. An oolitic limestone parapet wall extends along the porch’s base. A massive, exterior chimney covered with oolitic limestone is evident on the west wall. The building features wood frame, double-hung sash windows with one-over-one light configurations, and the east and west elevations have bay windows with leaded glass. Architectural detailing includes exposed rafter tails under the roof eaves, comer boards, a diamond-shaped vent in the gable end, and oolitic limestone elements.
This frame residence represents a fine example of bungalow architecture in Miami-Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, porch details, use of materials, adaptability to the area’s climate, and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. This building was recently rehabilitated as part of the Miami River Apartments Project.
Michner, G.P., House, 436 NW 4th Street (moved from its original location at 443 NW 4th Street)
This house (Photo 19) was constructed circa 1914 and was the first building on the block. Its exterior represents an unusual example of Masonry Vernacular architectural styling. The irregular plan building is a one-story masonry bungalow with a gable roof covered with composition roll roofing. The principal elevation is three bays wide and is characterized by a side porch and a comer turret capped by a pyramidal roof The gable end of the roof faces the street and is sheathed with decorative wooden shingles. The windows were recently replaced with one-over-one single hung sashes. All the original window openings remain and are embellished by a projecting masonry sill. Although there have been modifications to the building’s original architectural fabric, the original design intent is readily perceived and has been restored.
This masonry residence represents an unusual example of Masonry Vernacular architecture in Miami-Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its bungalow features, roof tower details, use of materials, cohesiveness within the neighborhood, and straightforward fimctional character. This house was moved from its original location across the street in order to avoid demolition. It was recently rehabilitated as part of the Miami River Apartments Project.
Burr Apartments, 342 NW 4th Avenue
This eight-unit apartment building was constracted circa 1924 and is a good example of the Mediterranean Revival architectural style (Photo 20). The building is situated at the southwest comer of the intersection of NW 4th Avenue and NW 4th Street. The main entrance to the building is located within the east elevation, running parallel to NW 4th Avenue. The rectangular-plan building features masonry construction and exterior walls that are sheathed in textured stucco. The principal elevation is five bays wide and two stories tall. The second and fourth bays feature paired windows and wider openings. The roofline of the building is embellished with a sloping parapet that wraps around the building to conceal a flat roof behind. The sloping parapet is interrupted by a flat masonry parapet found at the comers and just above the center bay of the principal elevation. Originally, this parapet was covered with tiles, but today is covered with composition shingles. All the original fenestration has been replaced with metal single hung sashes set within aluminum frames. The side elevation along NW 4th Street is six bays wide and features a single window opening at each bay on both the first and second stories. There is little decoration on the exterior walls except for slightly projecting masonry windowsills and masonry coping atop the parapet.
Pepper, Frank J., House, 326 NW 4th Avenue
This two-story frame residence was constructed in 1922 and represents a fine example of the Frame Vernacular architectural style (Photo 21). It is architecturally noteworthy for its details, size, adaptability to the area’s climate and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. The building is rectangular in plan and features a cross gable roof covered with composition roll roofing. The exterior walls of the house are sheathed in wood siding and feature simple vertical comer boards. The house sits atop a running concrete block wall. The house retains a large portion of the original fenestration pattern, which consists of double-hung, nine-over-one sash windows set within wooden frames. There is a one-story open porch projecting from the principal elevation. The porch is delineated by a simple wooden balustrade and has a shed roof, which is supported by wooden posts resting atop stone piers. The principal elevation is capped by a simple wooden pediment, inset with wood siding, under the cross-gable roof configuration. This house retains a high degree of architectural integrity, as its original appearance and visual composition remain relatively unaltered. A two-story garage apartment is located behind the house.
Exterior alterations to principal buildings in the Lummus Park Historic District typically involve the replacement of original windows and roofing materials. Wood-frame windows were often replaced with metalframe awning or jalousie windows. Composition shingles have been used in place of the more costly Mission tile on some buildings. One outbuilding has been converted from a garage to a residence. There are very few additions or other major exterior alterations. A number of the buildings have recently been rehabilitated.
Due to the new affordable housing high-rise development along NW 4th Street, certain houses in the area have recently been either moved or demolished. The building previously located at 436 NW 4th Street is gone. The G. P. Michner House, now at 436 NW 4th Street, was moved there from its original location across NW 4th Street. The Lula H. Hattersley House, now at 401 NW 3rd Street, was previously at 428 NW 4th Street. Other buildings in the Lummus Park Historic District have been moved for other various reasons. Fort Dallas was moved from its original site to its current location in Lummus Park in 1925. The William Wagner House, a noncontributing resource, was moved more than once to its final site in Lummus Park in 1979. The J. F. Jaudon House, formerly at 321 NW 4th Avenue, has been demolished.
Within the boundaries of the Lummus Park Historic District, there are four noncontributing buildings. The noncontributing buildings include the 1972, four-story apartment building at 357 NW 3rd Street, which features an irregular ground plan and masonry construction (Photo 22), and the 2001 Miami River Park Apartments at 418 NW 4th Street, which is a three-story apartment building featuring a “U” shape plan and masonry construction. There are also several vacant lots located within the district boundaries.
Within Lummus Park there are two non-contributing properties, including the William Wagner House. The William Wagner House is a one-and-one-half-story, rectangular frame building with a symmetrical facade (Photo 23). The exterior of the house is covered with board and batten siding, and the building is capped by a gable roof covered with wooden shingles. The house has plain batten doors and single-hung, six-over-six sash windows set within wooden frames. A small, one bay wide porch with a shed roof is located on the north elevation. A second wraps aroimd the south and east elevations. The William Wagner House was constructed circa 1855 and was originally located near Wagner Creek. The building was moved 50 feet in 1909 and was likely moved again in 1925. The house was threatened with demolition in the late 1970s and was moved to Lummus Park in 1979, after the district’s period of significance. A large portion of the building’s original architectural fabric was deteriorated, and consequently, much of the house should be considered a reconstruction. Therefore, it is not a contributing resource. The other noncontributing building in the park is the contemporary Recreation Hall (Photo 24).
The Lummus Park Historic District is significant at the local level under Criterion A in the area of Community Planning and Development and Criterion C in the area of Architecture. The park is named for John Newton Lummus, Sr., who came to Miami in 1895. He was one of the early developers of Miami Beach and served as mayor of the city from 1916 to 1918. Authorized in 1909, Lummus Park was the first public park established by the city of Miami and prompted the development of the residential subdivision in its immediate vicinity. The historic district represents suburban residential development in Miami before the phenomenal growth of the land boom years. The single family dwellings, apartment buildings and the Scottish Rite Temple are illustrative of the growth patterns in Miami, where areas closest to the water and downtown developed early in the history of the city. Architecturally, this district contains a collection of Mediterranean Revival, Masonry Vernacular, Frame Vernacular, and Art Deco style buildings built primarily during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Based on its concentration of historic buildings, the Lummus Park Historic District reflects the architectural trends of the early twentieth century. Despite the loss of several historic buildings, the historic district continues to maintain integrity in the areas of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.
Miami’s earliest permanent land records date from the Second Spanish Colonial Period (1784-1821). John Egan’s grant from the King of Spain was included as part of his son James’s claim after Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. A commission was set up to validate claims from the Spanish Period. James Egan’s claim for the north bank of the Miami River (640 acres) and his mother Rebecca Egan’s claim for the south bank (640 acres) were validated in 1825. These two grants included most of the original limits of the City of Miami.
In 1830, Key West resident Richard Fitzpatrick, formerly of South Carolina, purchased the James Egan grant in 1830 for $400. By 1833, he had also purchased the Rebecca Egan grant for $640 and two other 640 acre grants belonging to Polly and Jonathan Lewis. These latter two grants were located along the bay, south of Rebecca Egan’s grant. Fitzpatrick cleared the land, constructed buildings, brought in slaves and concentrated on every thing from sugar cane to livestock, and was in the process of building a large plantation when the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) erupted in late 1835. Early in 1836 Fitzpatrick left the area, and the Seminole Indians burned his plantation to the ground. Just weeks before, as President of the Territorial Council, he had successfully pushed for the creation of Dade County from the larger Monroe County. The United States established Fort Dallas on Fitzpatrick’s property in 1838 and occupied it intermittently until the war ended in 1842. Fort Dallas was established on the plantation of William English in 1836 as an United States military post and cantonment in southern Florida during the Seminole Wars. It was named in honor of Commodore Alexander James Dallas, U.S. Navy, who commanded U.S. naval forces in the West Indies.
By the time the war was over, Richard Fitzpatrick had lost interest in the area and sold his entire holdings to his nephew, William F. English, for $16,000. English platted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River in 1843 and began building a large plantation house and slave quarters of native limestone on the north bank. When another Indian outbreak in 1849 brought the U.S. troops back to the Miami River, English went to California to seek his fortune during the gold rush as a means to finance his new city. He was accidentally killed in California. The Army occupied the English plantation, improved the two stone buildings he had constructed, and added several others. The troops left a year later, only to return and reactivate Fort Dallas in 1855, at the beginning of the Third Seminole War.
During this occupation, the Army again made use of English’s stone buildings. Military engineers also constructed the region’s first road, connecting Fort Dallas with the military outpost at Fort Lauderdale. William Wagner, a settler who followed the U.S. Army to the wilderness, decided to stay after the war. Sometime between 1855 and 1858 he built a simple frame house on a creek that branched off the Miami River. This house and English’s slave quarters (Fort Dallas) are now located in Lummus Park, and are the only known buildings of that early pioneer era that remain in downtown Miami.^
The first Miami post office opened in December 1856, receiving mail once a month by boat from Key West. When the Third Seminole War ended, some soldiers settled in the area and Fort Dallas became the nucleus of a permanent community.^ Fort Dallas was reoccupied by Union troops at the beginning of the Civil War and was again abandoned after the war’s end.
When English died, his estate passed to his sister Harriet, who sold the most of the property on the south bank of the Miami River to Mary Brickell, wife of William Brickell. He operated an Indian trading post at the mouth of the river and was one of the area’s leading pioneer citizens. What became known as the Fort Dallas property (the original James Egan grant) on the north bank of the Miami River passed through several owners. Julia Sturtevant Tuttle, a resident of Cleveland, Ohio, moved to Florida in 1891, and was so taken with the old Fort Dallas property that she purchased it from the Biscayne Bay Company for $2,000. The Tuttles lived in a large home that had been in use when Fort Dallas occupied the spot at the time of the Indian wars of the mid-nineteenth century. Julia Tuttle repaired and converted the home into one of the show places in the area. It possessed a wide porch on the second story that provided a sweeping view of the river and the bay. The bay itself was a favorite resort for wealthy yachtsmen who came to the area in the winter for fishing and cruising.
She also recognized the importance of transportation if the region was ever to progress. In 1890, Julia Tuttle had met James E. Ingraham at a dinner party at her home in Cleveland. Tuttle was preparing to move to her property at Fort Dallas and remarked to him, “Some day somebody will build a railroad to Miami. I hope you will be interested in it, and when they do I will be willing to divide my properties there and give one-half to the company for a town site.” Two years later Ingraham became employed by Henry Flagler and told him of Tuttle’s proposal. Negotiations between Tuttle and Flagler led her to transfer to him half of her acreage along the Miami River in exchange for bringing his Florida East Coast Railway to Miami.^ On February 1,1896, Mrs. Tuttle fulfilled the first part of her agreement with Flagler by signing two deeds to transfer land for his hotel to him, and the 100 acres of land adjoining the hotel site, less her home site, to Flagler and Ingraham. The first train actually arrived on Monday, April 13,1896. It was a special, unscheduled train and Flagler was on board, as was his custom. The first passenger train arrived four days later.*
COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
The Lummus Park residential neighborhood was platted in 1909, following the creation of Lummus Park Subdivision in 1909. The land on which the district is located was originally owned by the Model Land Company, Henry Flagler’s real estate company, whose president was James E. Ingraham. The Lummus Park Historic District is significant as one of the last remaining residential neighborhoods within close proximity to downtown Miami. Over the years, the historic district has been separated from the rest of downtown through the construction of 1-95 to the east of the neighborhood and the construction of large high-rise structures on the north and south and along the Miami River to the west.
The neighborhood is a small but diverse enclave of houses and apartment buildings. It is one of the few surviving reminders of the charming and lively neighborhoods that once were part of the daily life of downtown Miami. The overall condition of the neighborhood, however, has deteriorated. The Miami River, located immediately west of the district, and is a potentially important, but presently ignored, amenity.
The buildings in the Lummus Park Historic District comprise one of the last remaining residential neighborhoods in downtown Miami. The city’s creation of public green space known as Lummus Park in 1909 spurred development in the area, and most of the buildings were constructed before 1926. In addition to a variety of Mediterranean Revival, Frame and Masonry Vernacular style houses and apartment buildings, the landmark Scottish Rite Temple, designed by the architectural firm of Kiehnel and Elliot, is located in this neighborhood.
The remaining Frame Vernacular residences and Masonry Vernacular buildings illustrate the building styles and types that were once prevalent throughout downtown Miami, primarily in the 1910s and 1920s. The simple frame residences and early masonry apartment buildings represent the variety of residential building types that once flourished within downtown Miami, but regrettably, only the buildings comprising the historic district survive as a small remnant. The inclusion of the park, its recreational buildings, the church, and the Scottish Rite Temple serve to recall the vitality of this neighborhood and serve as anchors to the district boundaries.
Two of the buildings found in the Lummus Park Historic District represent the last remaining structures associated with Miami’s pioneer history. Both structures were moved to their present site because they were threatened with demolition and there was no other alternative to their preservation. The erection of Fort Dallas at Lummus Park presents a combination reconstruction and moved structure. The 1920s effort to save the structure heralded the city’s initial historic preservation movement. This was quite a civic undertaking, as the city was just more than three decades old when the preservation effort began. Fort Dallas is the earliest surviving example of native limestone construction in Miami and the only remaining structure associated with the Miami’s early military history. Fort Dallas is considered a contributing resource within the district. The William Wagner House was moved to its present site in 1979 and was originally the home of one of Miami’s leading pioneer citizens, the man responsible for erecting the first church in the county. Although this structure is a rare example of braced frame construction and represents the early history of the area, it is considered to be a non-contributing resource as it was moved into the district after the period of significance.
The buildings of the historic district represent the diversity of architectural styling that characterized early construction trends in Miami. In addition to the two pioneer structures, there are various other examples of Frame and Masonry Vernacular buildings that represent an attempt to erect moderately-priced housing quickly, using locally available construction materials. The residences and apartment buildings executed in this regional style were influenced by other local buildings as well as the South Florida climate. The presence of the Mediterranean Revival Style in the district represents the influence of the architectural trend that became widespread in the Miami area during boom period of the 1920s. The Art Deco architecture of the Scottish Rite Temple makes this building a highly important architectural landmark in the city. The building was designed by Kiehnel and Elliott, one of the city’s most prominent architectural firms, and represents a highly important illustration of the firm’s work in South Florida.
The Frame Vernacular is exemplified by seven homes and apartment buildings that contribute to the Lummus Park Historic District. These buildings were generally designed and constructed by local craftsmen and builders using readily available materials. The houses are mainly rectangular in plan for economical construction. Most of the buildings have horizontal weatherboard siding. The overhanging roof eaves provide shade for the sides of the house and dormers supply additional air circulation. Other common features are the hipped or gabled roofs; roof overhangs with exposed rafter tails, wooden shingles, and slat porch balusters. In 1920, the Craftsman bungalow significantly influenced the vernacular house design. As a result, post-1920 Frame Vernacular houses feature some Craftsman elements such as knee braces and crossover gabled roofs.
The Mediterranean Revival style is the architectural style most intimately linked with the 1920s Florida land boom. This style in Florida has its origin in early twentieth century architects’ desire to create a building style appropriate to the history of the Sun Belt areas of the United States. The style was intended to embody the history and romance of the state’s Spanish heritage, and draw new residents and winter tourists to the picturesque resort area. Sometimes referred to under various subheadings, including Spanish Colonial Revival, the style was influenced by building traditions in Spain and other countries along the Mediterranean Sea, including Italy and Northern Africa. The style was often applied to domestic buildings in upper- or middle-class developments of the 1920s.
The three Mediterranean Revival apartment buildings in the neighborhood are characterized by an eclectic mix of details such as cast stone or concrete columns and applied decorative elements, as well as stuccoed wall surfaces, and low-pitched clay barrel tile roofs. Doors and windows are often arched and balconies are common. Frequently the plan included a courtyard framed by the wings of the residence.
In addition to Fort Dallas, four single-family residences, one apartment building, and one church within the district, as well as Fort Dallas, are considered Masonry Vernacular. Similar to the Frame Vernacular houses in the district. Masonry Vernacular houses were inexpensive to construct and simple in design. In most cases, the houses constructed in this style date fi-om the 1920s through the 1940s. Such residences are often constructed of brick, hollow tile, or concrete block. Concrete and clay tiles examples are often covered with stucco, and then painted. The houses are generally rectangular in plan, one to two stories in height, and exhibit little or no ornamentation. Like the Frame Vernacular residences in the district, the Masonry Vernacular houses in the neighborhood sometimes have Craftsman style elements.
One building in the Lummus Park Historic District represents the unique Art Deco architectural style. This style is characterized by stylized geometric details and vertical extensions above the roofline. The ornate Art Deco was a popular style for public buildings during the 1920s and 1930s. This was especially true in Miami, where vacationers brought their money to spend in extravagant hotels near the beach. The Scottish Rite Temple located at 471 NW 3rd Street, is an excellent example of Art Deco architecture. This three-story high building, designed by Kiehnel and Elliot, features a principal elevation characterized by an entrance portico with four stylized, Doric columns dividing the main facade into three bays. The portico is ornamented with four large, two-headed eagles placed above each column axis. The roof of the square block has a ziggurat with a massive single-headed eagle on each of the minor faces. This building is an important landmark in the city of Miami.
REPRODUCED FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES FOR THE MIAMI IN MIAMI CLASS OF THE FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY HONORS COLLEGE
EDITOR AND LAST UPDATE
John William Bailly 10 January 2023
COPYRIGHT © ALL RIGHTS RESERVED