Lummus Park Historic District NRHP

United States Department of the Interior
National Park Service
National Register of Historic Places
Registratin Form
August 2006
Prepared by Sara Eaton, Historic Preservation Officer: Carl Shiver, Historic Preservationist, Florida Bureau of Historic Preservation
https://catalog.archives.gov/id/77843239

SUMMARY PARAGRAPH

The Lummus Park Historic District is a residential area located in the City of Miami, Miami-Dade County,

Florida. Just west of downtown Miami, this historic district is located in a three-block area immediately east of

the Miami River. The Lummus Park Historic District is a distinguishable entity that represents historic and

architectural resources constructed in Miami before and during the land boom era of the 1920s. Many of the

buildings date from the first two decades of the twentieth century. The buildings in the district exhibit the Frame

Vernacular, Masonry Vernacular, Art Deco, and Mediterranean Revival architectural styles. The building

ground plans and rooflines vary, and the materials range from weatherboard siding to stucco. Of the twentythree

resources located in the historic district, nineteen are contributing and four are non-contributing. The

Lummus Park’ recreational area, created in 1909, is a contributing site in the historic district. Many original

streetscape and landscaping features remain intact within the district, including oolitic limestone and concrete

walls separating properties and mature trees found in the neighborhood.

SETTING

The City of Miami known as the “Magic City” is located in Southeast Florida, in Miami-Dade County on the

Miami River, between the Florida Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. Since its incorporation in 1896, the City

has grown tremendously, transforming into one of the world’s renowned centers where people can work, live

and play while enjoying a high quality of life. The City of Miami, known for its diverse culture and ethnicities,

is the largest municipality in Miami-Dade County. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of

362,470. By the year 2010 the population in the City is projected to rise to 390,191. Miami which is known as

the Gateway to Latin America, attracts a tremendous number of foreign bom people, resulting in a large Latin

American population that includes Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians, Venezuelans, Puerto Ricans,

Argentineans, Ecuadorians, Brazilians, Dominicans, Haitians and Mexicans. According to the 2000 U.S. census,

the City has a 60 percent Hispanic population, a 22.3 percent African-American population, and an 11.9 percent

White/other population.

The Lummus Park Historic District is a neighborhood located slightly west of downtown Miami. Immediately

to the west of the historic district is the Miami River. Beyond Lummus Park to the south are several large,

modem apartment buildings. Modem high-rise apartment buildings are also present north of the historic district

on the north side of NW 4th Street. To the east of the historic district, beyond NW 3rd Avenue, is Interstate 95

(1-95). The vacant and under-utilized public waterfront area adjacent to Lummus Park is proposed for

redevelopment for marine service and a local vegetable and seafood market serving area residents. A waterfront

cafe district is also proposed to restore activity to the area and expand job opportunities.

DESCRIPTION

The Lummus Park Historic District contains historic buildings situated in a three-block area, much of which

borders on Lummus Park, established in 1909. The park is included within the district boundaries and was the

catalyst for the development of the surrounding area into a residential neighborhood. The earliest building in the

district. Fort Dallas, was constructed c. 1848 at another site and was reconstructed in Lummus Park in 1925.

The remainder of the contributing buildings, located outside the park, was constructed between 1914 and 1925.

Three non-contributing buildings date between 1972 and 2001. There are also two noncontributing buildings

within Lummus Park. These are the William Wagner House, constructed in 1855 at another location, which

underwent a number of alterations when it was moved to the park in 1979. The other noncontributing building

in the park is the contemporary Recreation Hall. The Lummus Park Historic District is anchored on the south

by Lummus Park, on the southwest comer by the impressive Scottish Rite Temple, and on the northwest comer

by the Trinity C.M.E. Church.

The Lummus Park Historic District (Photos 1-2) is made up of single-family and multi-unit residential

buildings. In addition, there are a few examples of rear outbuildings. The buildings within the district are

executed in a variety of architectural styles and contain an array of plan configurations. The constmction

materials are varied, as are the rooflines and siting of the buildings within the property lines (Photo 3). The

streetscapes comprising the historic district retain a great deal of the visual character that provides the area with

a special sense of place and time. There are oolitic and concrete walls surrounding many of the properties,

which are shaded by mature palm and oak trees. The existing landscaping, coupled with the distinctive street

elevations of many buildings, recalls the built environment of the nei^borhood during the city’s pre-land boom

era prior to 1926. Due to the rapid growth during the land boom era and the post-World War II era, several

other examples of neighborhoods with similar character have been lost.

Frame Vernacular

Vernacular buildings demonstrate a tradition of building passed through generations of master craftsman and

apprentice relationships. This style of building uses indigenous materials to produce architecture appropriate for

the local climate. Architectural elements of Florida Frame Vernacular buildings include wide porches and broad

overhangs to provide shade, and dormers and open foundations to promote ventilation. In this district, most of

the Frame Vernacular buildings are two stories high and exhibit Craftsman influences. Of the contributing

resources, seven are of the Frame Vernacular style.

A good example of the Frame Vernacular style in the Lummus Park Historic District is the E. S. Lyne House

located at 444 NW 4th Street. This house, built circa 1918, is a two-story building that rests on a pier

foundation. In the Craftsman tradition, the building has a cross-gabled roof with exposed rafter tails under its

eaves. The front porch, which runs across the entire front of the building, has a gabled roof held up by wood

posts that rest on concrete bases. The T. P. Way House, at 450 N.W. 4th Street and next door to the E. S. Lyne

House, is another example of Frame Vernacular architecture. Built circa 1914, this residence is two stories high

and rests on a brick pier foundation. The hipped roof has exposed jigsaw-cut rafter tails. Other Frame

Vernacular buildings in this district include the Lula H. Hattersley House at 401 NW 3rd Street, the Albury

House at 413 NW 3rd Street, 411 NW 3rd Street, the Oaks Hotel and Apartments at 421 NW 3rd Street, and the

Frank J. Pepper House at 328 NW 4th Avenue.

Masonry Vernacular

Masonry Vernacular buildings, like other examples of vernacular architecture, are based on a traditional

approach to building that considers availability of materials, economic construction methods, and climatic

factors. In this district, these simple buildings are generally no more than two stories high. Often made of

inexpensive concrete block, this vernacular style also shows a Craftsman influence.

Seven of the contributing resources in the Lummus Park Historic District are Masonry Vernacular. The G. P.

Michner House, 436 NW 4th Street, is a good example of this style. The gabled roof of the house is repeated

over the fi-ont porch, which features square columns. An interesting element of this house is its small tower with

a pyramidal roof, located on the southeast comer of the building. The Temple Court Apartments, at 431-439

NW 3rd Street, is another example of the Masonry Vernacular style. This three-story masonry building (west

wing) has a stucco finish. Its roof is flat and surrounded by a parapet wall, except at the comer towers, where it

is hipped. Other Masonry Vernacular buildings in this district include the Frank Gallat House at 453 NW 3rd

Street, the W. F. Koegler House at 371 NW 3rd Street, 416 NW 5th Avenue, and the Trinity C.M.E. Church at

511 NW 4th Street.

Mediterranean Revival

The Mediterranean Revival style was extremely popular in Florida during the 1920s land boom. It is often

associated with the estates of the wealthy, but elements of those estates were often copied and repeated in more

modest buildings. This style combines aspects found in various Mediterranean architectures and includes many

decorative elements.

Three apartment buildings in this district represent the Mediterranean Revival style. The Wonderview

Apartments building, 345 NW 3rd Street, is a three-story high masonry building with a stucco finish. The

Mission tiles covering the roof, the paired arches on the porch, and the comer quoins reflect the architectural

styles of the Mediterranean. The Orlando Apartments, 458 NW 4th Street, is another three-story high masonry

building clad in stucco. The prominent Mediterranean Revival feature of this building is the Spanish-tiled

canopy over the two outer bays on the third floor. The Burr Apartments, 342 NW 4th Avenue, are housed in a

two-story high masonry building with a textured stucco finish. The sloping parapet on the roof was originally

covered in Spanish tiles.

Art Deco

Art Deco buildings represent a break from traditional styles. This style is characterized by stylized geometric

details and vertical extensions above the roofline. The ornate Art Deco was a popular style for public buildings

during the 1920s and 1930s. This was especially true in Miami, where upper-class vacationers brought their

money to spend in extravagant hotels near the beach. The Scottish Rite Temple, 471 NW 3rd Street, is an

excellent example of Art Deco architecture. This three-story high building, designed by Kiehnel and Elliot,

features two-story high Doric columns, stylized sculptures, and a ziggurat-shaped roof This building is an

important landmark in the City of Miami.

Beginning at Lummus Park and proceeding in a clockwise direction through NW 3rd Street, NW 4th Street, and

NW 4th Avenue, the properties contributing to the character of the district are described as follows:

Lummus Park

Lummus Park comprises a tract of land acquired by the City of Miami in 1909 for recreational purposes. It was

named for John Newton Lummus, Sr., (1873-?), who in 1909 introduced the resolution for the city of Miami to

develop the parcel of land as a public park. Lummus was one of the early real estate developers in Miami and

Miami Beach and was elected the first mayor of the city of Miami Beach (1915-1918). The park encompasses

an area of 5.9 acres and contains three major buildings. One building has been constructed since 1954 and

serves to enhance the recreational needs of the park. The park is approximately rectangular in shape and lies

between the 1-95 expressway and N.W. North ^ver Drive. The park contains varied vegetation with no

apparent formal landscaping.

Fort Dallas (William English Plantation, Lummus Park)

Fort Dallas (Photo 4) was originally one of the buildings located on the plantation of William English, one of

Dade County’s early pioneers. Its original site is now oceupied by the Dupont Plaza Hotel in downtown Miami.

The historie landmark was disassembled and reconstructed in Lummus Park in 1925. In reeonstructing the

building, using the original limestone blocks, the plan of the building was copied and the old windows and

doorframes reused. The original building dated from 1836 and between 1838 andl855 was used by the U.S.

Army as a trading post and a barracks. Fort Dallas is a one-story rectangular building constructed of native

oolitic limestone. The masonry building is capped by a gable roof that is covered with composition shingles and

features exposed rafters under the roof eaves. The main entrance to the building is loeated on the north elevation

and contains a wood panel door recessed behind iron grilles. The gable ends of the building are decorated with

wooden shingles and contain small louvered vents. Also located at each gable end are interior brick chimneys

with the brick exposed below the shingles.

Wonderview Apartments, 345 NW 3rd Street

The Wonderview Apartments (presently known as the Lorusso Apartments) are constructed of masonry and rise

to a height of three stories. This apartment building constitutes a fine example of the Mediterranean Revival

style of architecture with construction beginning in 1925 (Photo 5). The three-story building is three bays wide

and extends almost the entire length of the lot. An arcade with an entrance at the center bay characterizes the

i)rincipal elevation of the building. The two side bays feature paired arches. There are recessed balconies on

the second and third stories at the center bay. The exterior walls of the building are clad in textured stucco. The

original fenestration consisted of double-hung, three-over-one sash windows set within wooden frames. The

windows have been replaced with metal awning windows. A parapet roof, covered in Mission tiles, creates an

articulated roofline for the building. There are scuppers along the parapet. The exterior is embellished with

comer quoins on the second and third floor comers.

This masonry apartment building represents a fine example of Mediterranean Revival architectiu-e in Miami-

Dade County in the 1920s and 1930s. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, details, groundfloor

arcade and cohesiveness within the neighborhood.

Koegler, W. F., House, 371 NW 3rd Street

This house is a two-story, masonry building with a projecting lower story (Photo 6). The house features a

rectangular plan and was erected prior to 1922. The principal elevation is four bays wide and features

architectural elements derived from Masonry Vernacular styling. One of the most distinguishing features of the

building’s facade is the crenellated parapet, which wraps around the perimeter of the house at both the first and

second stories. All the original windows have been replaced with jalousie-type windows set into aluminum

fi-ames. The exterior of the house is clad in smooth stucco and its exterior features a projecting comice

delineated by a stylized leaf motif located just below the upper crenellated parapet. A one-story auxiliary

building is located immediately north of the house.

Hattersley, Lula H., House, 401 NW 3rd Street (moved from its original location at 428 NW 4th Street)

Built circa 1914, this house (Photo 7) is Frame Vernacular in style. The building’s design reflects the pyramidal

cottage house type. It is sited on the north side of NW 3rd Street. The rectangular, one-story building has a

wood fi-ame stmctural system that rests on painted concrete block piers. The exterior fabric consists of

weatherboard siding, and the hipped roof is covered with composition shingles. A full- facadeporch is located

on the south elevation and wraps around on the west elevation. The hipped roof porch has turned post supports

and features a railing with turned balusters. The building has wood frame, double-hung sash windows with oneover-

one light configurations. Architectural detailing is limited to simple window surroimds, comer boards, and

exposed rafter tails imder the eaves that are decoratively cut. An addition has been attached to the east side of

the rear elevation. Some of the jigsaw-cut rafter tails have been replaced with plain, uncut boards.

This firame residence represents a fine example of Frame Vernacular architecture in Miami-Dade County

between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, flared roof details, use of

materials, adaptability to the area’s climate, cohesiveness within the neighborhood and straightforward

functional character. The original owner was Lula H. Hattersley. The original lot was previously owned by the

Model Land Company, a subsidiary of the Florida East Coast Railway. The Model Land Company, whose

president was James E. Ingraham,^ was one of the many companies formed to promote and sell land the railroad

had acquired. The house currently remains in good condition.

Albury House, 413 NW 3rd Street

This is a two-story firame building (Photo 8) constmcted prior to 1914. There is a one-story masonry addition

projecting fi-om the building on the east side. The building is capped by a gable roof that incorporates a side

gable dormer. There are exposed rafter ends, and the gable ends are decorated with wooden shingles. The

principal elevation of the house is three bays wide and features a recessed balcony within the gable end at the

level of an upper story. There are decorative sidelights around the main entrance. All the original fenestration

has been replaced with single-hung, one-over-one sash windows set within aluminum fi-ames. The general

appearance of the house recalls the Frame Vernacular style of architecture. There is one small, historic

accessory building located at the rear of the property.

411 NW 3rd Street

The building at 411 NW 3rd Street (Photo 9) is a two-story wood fi-ame building located to the rear of the

Albury House. It may originally been a garage apartment, but is currently a residence on both floors. It has a

gable-on-hip roof covered with composition shingles on the second story. The projecting first story has a shed

roof The building is two bays wide with single-hung, one-over-one sash windows set within aluminum frames.

There are also aluminum awning windows visible on the second story of the east elevation. The building has

minimal features, which include gable vents and window surroimds on the first story.

Oaks Hotel and Apartments, 421 NW 3rd Street

This building was constructed prior to 1918 in the Frame Vernacular style of architecture (Photo 10). The

rectangular plan building is supported by a frame structural system that is clad in asbestos shingles, although its

exterior walls were originally covered with wood siding. The building sits on concrete block piers and is capped

by a gable roof covered in composition roll roofing. A recessed porch at the first story characterizes the

principal elevation of the building. The width of the elevation is divided into three bays by flat wood pilasters

extending from the first through third floors. The gable roof has its gable end facing the street and adds a half

story to the height of the building. A simple wooden balustrade around its perimeter delineates the first floor

porch. A two-story auxiliary building is located at the rear of the property.

This frame apartment building represents a fine example of Frame Vernacular architecture in Miami-Dade

County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its size, adaptability to the area’s climate,

cohesiveness within the neighborhood and straightforward, functional character.

Temple Court Apartments, 431^39 NW 3rd Street

The Temple Court Apartments were built in two phases between 1914 and 1918. The present configuration of

the building is a “U” shape plan with a four-story elevation on the east wing and a three-story elevation on the

west wing (Photo 11). The west wing is the older portion of the building and was previously known as the

Gallat Court Apartments (Photo 12). The exterior of the apartment building is executed in the Masonry

Vernacular style of architecture and contains many physical features of that style. The building’s structure is a

masonry frame filled with concrete slabs to support the floors. The exterior walls of the building are clad in

textured stucco and contain jalousie-type aluminum windows as replacements for the original fenestration. A

low Mission-shaped parapet wall serves to conceal a flat roof. The most distinguishing features of the building

are the comer towers capped by hipped roofs. The building’s wings are five bays wide, with a balcony

delineated by a simple wooden balustrade at the outer two bays. The groimd floor is comprised of full- facade

porches marked by masonry arches, which support the balconies. At the top of the hyphen connecting the two

wings the name of the building is inscribed on the parapet: “Temple Court.”

This masonry apartment building represents an unusual example of Masonry Vernacular architecture in Miami-

Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its details, use of materials, size,

massing, adaptability to the area’s climate and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. The original owner was

Frank Gallat. The lot was previously owned by the Model Land Company.

Gallat, Frank, House, 453 NW 3rd Street

Known today as the Temple Court annex, this building (Photo 13) was the residence of Frank K. Gallat, early

owner of the Temple Court Apartments (see above). The building is a two-and-one-half-story masonry building

with a scored stucco exterior finish. The second story of the building presents projecting cross gables two bays

wide The building was constructed in 1913 and is executed in the Masonry Vernacular style of architecture. The

principal elevation of the building is characterized by a projecting wrapped porch on the first floor with a roof

supported by stylized colonettes capped by Corinthian capitals. The entire building is capped by a hipped roof

marked with hipped dormers toward the ends of the roof at the attic level. The roof is covered with composition

shingles. Some of the original fenestration remains and consists of double-hung, one-over-one sash windows set

within wooden frames.

Scottish Rite Temple, 471 NW 3rd Street

The three-story Scottish Rite Temple (Photo 14) is the most imposing building within the district in both scale

and styling. Construction of the building began in 1922 based on the design by the prominent architectural firm

of Kiehnel and Elliott. Richard Kiehnel and J .B. Elliot often tried to give buildings an aged look and were

proponents of Mediterranean Revival style. Buildings they designed include the Seybold Building, Miami High

School, Coral Gables Congregational Church, and El Jardin. The principal elevation is characterized by an

entrance portico with four stylized Doric columns dividing the main facade into three bays. The columns

extend to a height of two stories and are capped by a triangular pediment. The inscription on the entablature

reads; “Scottish Rite.” The portico is ornamented with four large, two-headed eagles placed above each column

axis. A gable-end roof is visible behind the eagle sculptures.

The building’s configuration presents a “T” shape plan with projecting lower wing to the northeast. The

principal elevation of the wing is characterized by a colonnade delineated by similar stylized Doric columns and

an articulated masonry entablature. The roof of the square block has a ziggurat with a massive single-headed

eagle on each of the minor faces. A cupola caps the ziggurat. The walls of the building are clad in smooth

stucco. A set of masonry steps lead from the sidewalk level to the entrance. The steps span the width of the

main facade and emphasize the Grecian overtones present in the design. Most of the fenestration has been

replaced by awning-type windows set into aluminum frames. A masonry dentil course wraps around the

perimeter of the building at the height of the entablature. Among the most outstanding interior spaces are the

two-story theater under the ziggurat roof and the clubroom located within the projecting wing. This building

serves to anchor the southwest comer of the historic district and is in closer proximity to the Miami River than

any other building within the district.

This temple represents an outstanding and unique example of Art Deco architecture in Miami-Dade County in

the 1920s and 1930s. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic details with Art Deco abstractions, twoheaded

eagles and a ziggurat roof, its size and monumental scale and its location, overlooking the river.

Trinity C.M.E Church, 511 NW 4th Street

The Trinity C.M.E. Church was constructed in 1922 as the Immanuel Lutheran Church by the architect John

Sculthorpe (Photo 15). The Lutheran congregation occupied the building well into the 1950s. The masonry

building is rectangular in plan and represents an example of the Masonry Vernacular style of architecture

embellished with Neo-Gothic elements. The church has a comer entrance, which responds to its siting, at the

northwest comer of the intersection of NW 4th Street and NW 5th Avenue. The building is four bays wide

across its east elevation and six bays wide across the south elevation. The building’s exterior is characterized by

paired lancet windows, masonry buttresses, and a comer tower. The building was heavily damaged during the

hurricane of 1926, but was quickly repaired and its stmcture was strengthened. The church building is capped

by a gable roof covered with composite shingles. Its exterior walls are clad in stucco and are pierced by the

lancet windows decorated with iconography in stained glass. Although some of the original fenestration has

been altered and covered with masonry block, the original design of the building is readily perceived. A small

one-story, historic Masonry Vernacular building (416 NW 5th Avenue) and garage are located on the site

immediately north of the church.

416 NW 5th Avenue

This one-story Masonry Vernacular building may be an accessory building to the Trinity C.M.E. Church at 511

NW 4th Street, although it has a different address. This building is rectangular in plan. Its main entrance is on

the east facade, and is covered by a metal awning. The building has metal awning windows, usually in a

configuration of four lights. The flat roof has a parapet, which is recessed slightly and is higher above the

entrance and at the comers of the building. The decorative features include concrete sills and scuppers.

Orlando Apartments, 458 NW 4th Street

The Orlando is a three-story masonry apartment building supported by a reinforced concrete stractural system

(Photo 16). The building was constmcted circa 1921 and is rectangular in its plan configuration. The exterior

walls of the building are clad in textured stucco and are capped by a masonry parapet that conceals a flat roof

behind. The principal elevation of the building is three bays wide and contains paired windows at the end bays.

The tops of the outer bays are characterized by projecting canopies capped by a Spanish tile roof The building

was renovated in the 1980s, during which time the original windows were removed and replaced with metal

sash windows set within smaller frames.

This masonry apartment building represents a fine example of Mediterranean Revival architecture in Miami-

Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, balcony details,

use of materials, and size and cohesiveness within the neighborhood.

Way, T.P., House, 450 NW 4th Street

Built circa 1914, this house (Photo 17) is Frame Vernacular in style. The rectangular two-story building has a

wood frame structural system that rests on brick piers. Wood lattice is located between some of the piers. The

exterior fabric consists of weatherboard siding, and the hipped roof is covered with composition shingles. A

one-story, full- facade porch is located on the north and east elevations. The hipped roof porch has tixmed post

supports and features a railing with turned balusters. An exterior concrete block chimney covered with stucco is

evident on the south wall. The building features wood frame, double-hung sash windows with a one-over-one

light configuration. Architectural details are limited to exposed jigsaw-cut rafter tails under the roof eaves,

simple window surrounds, and comer boards.

This frame constmction residence represents a typical example of Frame Vernacular architecture in Miami-

Dade County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its large porch, adaptability to the

area’s climate and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. This building was recently rehabilitated as part of the

Miami River Apartments Project.

Lyne, E.S., House, 444 NW 4th Street

Built circa 1918, this bungalow type residence (Photo 18) is Frame Vernacular in style. It is sited on the south

side of NW 4th Street. The rectangular, two-story building has a wood frame stmctural system that rests on

piers. Wood is located between some of the piers. The primary exterior fabric consists of weatherboard siding.

The cross-gabled roof is covered with diamond-shaped composition shingles. A one-story, full- facadeporch is

located on the north elevation. The open porch has paired wood post supports that sit on concrete bases. An

oolitic limestone parapet wall extends along the porch’s base. A massive, exterior chimney covered with oolitic

limestone is evident on the west wall. The building features wood frame, double-hung sash windows with oneover-

one light configurations, and the east and west elevations have bay windows with leaded glass.

Architectural detailing includes exposed rafter tails under the roof eaves, comer boards, a diamond-shaped vent

in the gable end, and oolitic limestone elements.

This frame residence represents a fine example of bungalow architecture in Miami-Dade County between 1910

and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its stylistic features, porch details, use of materials, adaptability to

the area’s climate, and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. This building was recently rehabilitated as part

of the Miami River Apartments Project.

Michner, G.P., House, 436 NW 4th Street (moved from its original location at 443 NW 4th Street)

This house (Photo 19) was constructed circa 1914 and was the first building on the block. Its exterior represents

an unusual example of Masonry Vernacular architectural styling. The irregular plan building is a one-story

masonry bungalow with a gable roof covered with composition roll roofing. The principal elevation is three

bays wide and is characterized by a side porch and a comer turret capped by a pyramidal roof The gable end of

the roof faces the street and is sheathed with decorative wooden shingles. The windows were recently replaced

with one-over-one single hung sashes. All the original window openings remain and are embellished by a

projecting masonry sill. Although there have been modifications to the building’s original architectural fabric,

the original design intent is readily perceived and has been restored.

This masonry residence represents an unusual example of Masonry Vernacular architecture in Miami-Dade

County between 1910 and 1920. It is architecturally noteworthy for its bungalow features, roof tower details,

use of materials, cohesiveness within the neighborhood, and straightforward fimctional character. This house

was moved from its original location across the street in order to avoid demolition. It was recently rehabilitated

as part of the Miami River Apartments Project.

Burr Apartments, 342 NW 4th Avenue

This eight-unit apartment building was constracted circa 1924 and is a good example of the Mediterranean

Revival architectural style (Photo 20). The building is situated at the southwest comer of the intersection of NW

4th Avenue and NW 4th Street. The main entrance to the building is located within the east elevation, running

parallel to NW 4th Avenue. The rectangular-plan building features masonry constmction and exterior walls that

are sheathed in textured stucco. The principal elevation is five bays wide and two stories tall. The second and

fourth bays feature paired windows and wider openings. The roofline of the building is embellished with a

sloping parapet that wraps around the building to conceal a flat roof behind. The sloping parapet is intermpted

by a flat masonry parapet found at the comers and just above the center bay of the principal elevation.

Originally, this parapet was covered with tiles, but today is covered with composition shingles. All the original

fenestration has been replaced with metal single hung sashes set within aluminum frames. The side elevation

along NW 4th Street is six bays wide and features a single window opening at each bay on both the first and

second stories. There is little decoration on the exterior walls except for slightly projecting masonry windowsills

and masonry coping atop the parapet.

Pepper, Frank J., House, 326 NW 4th Avenue

This two-story frame residence was constmcted in 1922 and represents a fine example of the Frame Vernacular

architectural style (Photo 21). It is architecturally noteworthy for its details, size, adaptability to the area’s

climate and cohesiveness within the neighborhood. The building is rectangular in plan and features a cross

gable roof covered with composition roll roofing. The exterior walls of the house are sheathed in wood siding

and feature simple vertical comer boards. The house sits atop a running concrete block wall. The house retains a

large portion of the original fenestration pattern, which consists of double-hung, nine-over-one sash windows

set within wooden frames. There is a one-story open porch projecting from the principal elevation. The porch is

delineated by a simple wooden balustrade and has a shed roof, which is supported by wooden posts resting atop

stone piers. The principal elevation is capped by a simple wooden pediment, inset with wood siding, imder the

cross-gable roof configuration. This house retains a high degree of architectural integrity, as its original

appearance and visual composition remain relatively unaltered. A two-story garage apartment is located behind

the house.

Alterations

Exterior alterations to principal buildings in the Lummus Park Historic District typically involve the

replacement of original windows and roofing materials. Wood-frame windows were often replaced with metalframe

awning or jalousie windows. Composition shingles have been used in place of the more costly Mission

tile on some buildings. One outbuilding has been converted from a garage to a residence. There are very few

additions or other major exterior alterations. A number of the buildings have recently been rehabilitated.

Due to the new affordable housing high-rise development along NW 4th Street, certain houses in the area have

recently been either moved or demolished. The building previously located at 436 NW 4th Street is gone. The

G. P. Michner House, now at 436 NW 4th Street, was moved there from its original location across NW 4th

Street. The Lula H. Hattersley House, now at 401 NW 3rd Street, was previously at 428 NW 4th Street. Other

buildings in the Lummus Park Historic District have been moved for other various reasons. Fort Dallas was

moved from its original site to its current location in Lummus Park in 1925. The William Wagner House, a noncontributing

resource, was moved more than once to its final site in Lummus Park in 1979. The J. F. Jaudon

House, formerly at 321 NW 4th Avenue, has been demolished.

Noncontributing Resources

Within the boundaries of the Lummus Park Historic District, there are four noncontributing buildings. The noncontributing

buildings include the 1972, four-story apartment building at 357 NW 3rd Street, which features an

irregular ground plan and masonry construction (Photo 22), and the 2001 Miami River Park Apartments at 418

NW 4th Street, which is a three-story apartment building featuring a “U” shape plan and masonry construction.

There are also several vacant lots located within the district boundaries.

Within Lummus Park there are two non-contributing properties, including the William Wagner House. The

William Wagner House is a one-and-one-half-story, rectangular frame building with a symmetrical facade

(Photo 23). The exterior of the house is covered with board and batten siding, and the building is capped by a

gable roof covered with wooden shingles. The house has plain batten doors and single-hung, six-over-six sash

windows set within wooden frames. A small, one bay wide porch with a shed roof is located on the north

elevation. A second wraps aroimd the south and east elevations. The William Wagner House was constructed

circa 1855 and was originally located near Wagner Creek. The building was moved 50 feet in 1909 and was

likely moved again in 1925. The house was threatened with demolition in the late 1970s and was moved to

Lummus Park in 1979, after the district’s period of significance. A large portion of the building’s original

architectural fabric was deteriorated, and consequently, much of the house should be considered a

reconstruction. Therefore, it is not a contributing resource. The other noncontributing building in the park is the

contemporary Recreation Hall (Photo 24).

SUMMARY PARAGRAPH

The Lummus Park Historic District is significant at the local level under Criterion A in the area of Community

Planning and Development and Criterion C in the area of Architecture. The park is named for John Newton

Lmnmus, Sr., who came to Miami in 1895. He was one of the early developers of Miami Beach and served as

mayor of the city from 1916 to 1918. Authorized in 1909, Lummus Park was the first public park established

by the city of Miami and prompted the development of the residential subdivision in its immediate vicinity. .

The historic district represents suburban residential development in Miami before the phenomenal growth of the

land boom years. The single family dwellings, apartment buildings and the Scottish Rite Temple are illustrative

of the growth patterns in Miami, where areas closest to the water and downtown developed early in the history

of the city. Architecturally, this district contains a collection of Mediterranean Revival, Masonry Vernacular,

Frame Vernacular, and Art Deco style buildings built primarily during the first two decades of the twentieth

century. Based on its concentration of historic buildings, the Lummus Park Historic District reflects the

architectural trends of the early twentieth century. Despite the loss of several historic buildings, the historic

district continues to maintain integrity in the areas of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling,

and association.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Miami’s earliest permanent land records date from the Second Spanish Colonial Period (1784-1821). John

Egan’s grant from the King of Spain was included as part of his son James’s claim after Florida became a

territory of the United States in 1821. A commission was set up to validate claims from the Spanish Period.

James Egan’s claim for the north bank of the Miami River (640 acres) and his mother Rebecca Egan’s claim for

the south bank (640 acres) were validated in 1825. These two grants included most of the original limits of the

City ofMiami.^

In 1830, Key West resident Richard Fitzpatrick, formerly of South Carolina, purchased the James Egan grant in

1830 for $400. By 1833, he had also purchased the Rebecca Egan grant for $640 and two other 640 acre grants

belonging to Polly and Jonathan Lewis. These latter two grants were located along the bay, south of Rebecca

Egan’s grant. Fitzpatrick cleared the land, constructed buildings, brought in slaves and concentrated on every

thing from sugar cane to livestock, and was in the process of building a large plantation when the Second

Seminole War (1835-1842) erupted in late 1835. Early in 1836 Fitzpatrick left the area, and the Seminole

Indians burned his plantation to the ground. Just weeks before, as President of the Territorial Council, he had

successfully pushed for the creation of Dade County from the larger Monroe County. The United States

established Fort Dallas on Fitzpatrick’s property in 1838 and occupied it intermittently until the war ended in

1842. Fort Dallas was established on the plantation of William English in 1836 as an United States military

post and cantonment in southern Florida during the Seminole Wars. It was named in honor of Commodore

Alexander James Dallas, U.S. Navy, who commanded U.S. naval forces in the West Indies.

By the time the war was over, Richard Fitzpatrick had lost interest in the area and sold his entire holdings to his

nephew, William F. English, for $16,000. English platted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the

Miami River in 1843 and began building a large plantation house and slave quarters of native limestone on the

north bank. When another Indian outbreak in 1849 brought the U.S. troops back to the Miami River, English

went to California to seek his fortune during the gold rush as a means to finance his new city. He was

accidentally killed in California. The Army occupied the English plantation, improved the two stone buildings

he had constructed, and added several others. The troops left a year later, only to return and reactivate Fort

Dallas in 1855, at the beginning of the Third Seminole War.

During this occupation, the Army again made use of English’s stone buildings. Military engineers also

constructed the region’s first road, connecting Fort Dallas with the military outpost at Fort Lauderdale. William

Wagner, a settler who followed the U.S. Army to the wilderness, decided to stay after the war. Sometime

between 1855 and 1858 he built a simple frame house on a creek that branched off the Miami River. This house

and English’s slave quarters (Fort Dallas) are now located in Lummus Park, and are the only known buildings

of that early pioneer era that remain in downtown Miami.^

The first Miami post office opened in December 1856, receiving mail once a month by boat from Key West.

When the Third Seminole War ended, some soldiers settled in the area and Fort Dallas became the nucleus of a

permanent community.^ Fort Dallas was reoccupied by Union troops at the beginning of the Civil War and was

again abandoned after the war’s end.

When English died, his estate passed to his sister Harriet, who sold the most of the property on the south bank

of the Miami River to Mary Brickell, wife of William Brickell. He operated an Indian trading post at the mouth

of the river and was one of the area’s leading pioneer citizens. What became known as the Fort Dallas property

(the original James Egan grant) on the north bank of the Miami River passed through several owners. Julia

Sturtevant Tuttle, a resident of Cleveland, Ohio, moved to Florida in 1891, and was so taken with the old Fort

Dallas property that she purchased it from the Biscayne Bay Company for $2,000. The Tuttles lived in a large

home that had been in use when Fort Dallas occupied the spot at the time of the Indian wars of the midnineteenth

century. Julia Tuttle repaired and converted the home into one of the show places in the area. It

possessed a wide porch on the second story that provided a sweeping view of the river and the bay. The bay

itself was a favorite resort for wealthy yachtsmen who came to the area in the winter for fishing and cruising.

She also recognized the importance of transportation if the region was ever to progress. In 1890, Julia Tuttle

had met James E. Ingraham at a dinner party at her home in Cleveland. Tuttle was preparing to move to her

property at Fort Dallas and remarked to him, “Some day somebody will build a railroad to Miami. I hope you

will be interested in it, and when they do I will be willing to divide my properties there and give one-half to the

company for a town site.” Two years later Ingraham became employed by Henry Flagler and told him of

Tuttle’s proposal. Negotiations between Tuttle and Flagler led her to transfer to him half of her acreage along

the Miami River in exchange for bringing his Florida East Coast Railway to Miami.^ On February 1,1896,

Mrs. Tuttle fulfilled the first part of her agreement with Flagler by signing two deeds to transfer land for his

hotel to him, and the 100 acres of land adjoining the hotel site, less her home site, to Flagler and Ingraham. The

first train actually arrived on Monday, April 13,1896. It was a special, unscheduled train and Flagler was on

board, as was his custom. The first passenger train arrived four days later.*

COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

The Lummus Park residential neighborhood was platted in 1909, following the creation of Lummus Park

Subdivision in 1909. The land on which the district is located was originally owned by the Model Land

Company, Henry Flagler’s real estate company, whose president was James E. Ingraham. The Lummus Park

Historic District is significant as one of the last remaining residential neighborhoods within close proximity to

downtown Miami. Over the years, the historic district has been separated from the rest of downtown through the

construction of 1-95 to the east of the neighborhood and the construction of large high-rise structures on the

north and south and along the Miami River to the west.

The neighborhood is a small but diverse enclave of houses and apartment buildings. It is one of the few

surviving reminders of the charming and lively neighborhoods that once were part of the daily life of downtown

Miami. The overall condition of the neighborhood, however, has deteriorated. The Miami River, located

immediately west of the district, and is a potentially important, but presently ignored, amenity.

ARCHITECTURAL SIGNIFICANCE

The buildings in the Lummus Park Historic District comprise one of the last remaining residential

neighborhoods in downtown Miami. The city’s creation of public green space known as Lummus Park in 1909

spurred development in the area, and most of the buildings were constructed before 1926. In addition to a

variety of Mediterranean Revival, Frame and Masonry Vernacular style houses and apartment buildings, the

landmark Scottish Rite Temple, designed by the architectural firm of Kiehnel and Elliot,’ is located in this

neighborhood.

The remaining Frame Vernacular residences and Masonry Vernacular buildings illustrate the building styles and

types that were once prevalent throughout downtown Miami, primarily in the 1910s and 1920s. The simple

frame residences and early masonry apartment buildings represent the variety of residential building types that

onee flourished within downtown Miami, but regrettably, only the buildings comprising the historic district

survive as a small remnant. The inclusion of the park, its recreational buildings, the church, and the Scottish

Rite Temple serve to recall the vitality of this neighborhood and serve as anchors to the district boundaries.

Two of the buildings found in the Lummus Park Historic District represent the last remaining structures

associated with Miami’s pioneer history. Both structures were moved to their present site because they were

threatened with demolition and there was no other alternative to their preservation. The erection of Fort Dallas

at Lummus Park presents a combination reconstruction and moved structure. The 1920s effort to save the

structure heralded the city’s initial historic preservation movement. This was quite a civie imdertaking, as the

city was just more than three decades old when the preservation effort began. Fort Dallas is the earliest

surviving example of native limestone construction in Miami and the only remaining structure associated with

the Miami’s early military history. Fort Dallas is considered a contributing resource within the district. The

William Wagner House was moved to its present site in 1979 and was originally the home of one of Miami’s

leading pioneer citizens, the man responsible for erecting the first church in the county. Although this sfructure

is a rare example of braced frame consfruction and represents the early history of the area, it is considered to be

a non-contributing resource as it was moved into the district after the period of significance.

The buildings of the historic district represent the diversity of architectural styling that characterized early

construction trends in Miami. In addition to the two pioneer structures, there are various other examples of

Frame and Masonry Vernacular buildings that represent an attempt to erect moderately-priced housing quickly,

using locally available construction materials. The residences and apartment buildings executed in this regional

style were influenced by other local buildings as well as the South Florida climate. The presence of the

Mediterranean Revival Style in the district represents the influence of the architectural trend that became

widespread in the Miami area during boom period of the 1920s. The Art Deco architecture of the Scottish Rite

Temple makes this building a highly important architectural landmark in the city. The building was designed by

Kiehnel and Elliott, one of the city’s most prominent architectural firms, and represents a highly important

illustration of the firm’s work in South Florida.

* The architectural firm of Kiehnel and John Elliott was formed in Pittsburgh, Penn., in 1906, and established offices in Miami Beach

Frame Vernacular

The Frame Vernacular is exemplified by seven homes and apartment buildings that contribute to the Lummus

Park Historic District. These buildings were generally designed and constructed by local craftsmen and builders

using readily available materials. The houses are mainly rectangular in plan for economical construction. Most

of the buildings have horizontal weatherboard siding. The overhanging roof eaves provide shade for the sides of

the house and dormers supply additional air circulation. Other common features are the hipped or gabled roofs;

roof overhangs with exposed rafter tails, wooden shingles, and slat porch balusters. In 1920, the Craftsman

bungalow significantly influenced the vernacular house design. As a result, post-1920 Frame Vernacular houses

feature some Craftsman elements such as knee braces and crossover gabled roofs.

Mediterranean Revival

The Mediterranean Revival style is the architectural style most intimately linked with the 1920s Florida land

boom. This style in Florida has its origin in early twentieth century architects’ desire to create a building style

appropriate to the history of the Sun Belt areas of the United States. The style was intended to embody the

history and romance of the state’s Spanish heritage, and draw new residents and winter tourists to the

picturesque resort area. Sometimes referred to under various subheadings, including Spanish Colonial Revival,

the style was influenced by building traditions in Spain and other countries along the Mediterranean Sea,

including Italy and Northern Africa. The style was often applied to domestic buildings in upper- or middle-class

developments of the 1920s.

The three Mediterranean Revival apartment buildings in the neighborhood are characterized by an eclectic mix

of details such as cast stone or concrete columns and applied decorative elements, as well as stuccoed wall

surfaces, and low-pitched clay barrel tile roofs. Doors and windows are often arched and balconies are common.

Frequently the plan included a courtyard framed by the wings of the residence.

Masonry Vernacular

In addition to Fort Dallas, four single-family residences, one apartment building, and one church within the

district, as well as Fort Dallas, are considered Masonry Vernacular. Similar to the Frame Vernacular houses in

the district. Masonry Vernacular houses were inexpensive to construct and simple in design. In most cases, the

houses constructed in this style date fi-om the 1920s through the 1940s. Such residences are often constructed of

brick, hollow tile, or concrete block. Concrete and clay tiles examples are often covered with stucco, and then

painted. The houses are generally rectangular in plan, one to two stories in height, and exhibit little or no

ornamentation. Like the Frame Vernacular residences in the district, the Masonry Vernacular houses in the

neighborhood sometimes have Craftsman style elements.

Art Deco

One building in the Lummus Park Historic District represents the unique Art Deco architectural style. This style

is characterized by stylized geometric details and vertical extensions above the roofline. The ornate Art Deco

was a popular style for public buildings during the 1920s and 1930s. This was especially true in Miami, where

vacationers brought their money to spend in extravagant hotels near the beach. The Scottish Rite Temple

located at 471 NW 3rd Street, is an excellent example of Art Deco architecture. This three-story high building,

designed by Kiehnel and Elliot, features a principal elevation characterized by an entrance portico with four

stylized, Doric columns dividing the main facadeinto three bays. The portico is ornamented with four large,

two-headed eagles placed above each column axis. The roof of the square block has a ziggurat with a massive

single-headed eagle on each of the minor faces. This building is an important landmark in the city of Miami.

NOTES

REPRODUCED FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES FOR THE MIAMI IN MIAMI CLASS OF THE FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY HONORS COLLEGE

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